ChatGPT – An AI-Equipped Tool For Shaping The Future Of Next-Generation Information Technology

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Released just 1.5 months ago, chatGPT by OpenAI is the fastest-growing AI platform. Within five days of its release on November 30, 2022, chatGPT witnessed over one million users, the highest ever by any of the applications existing in modern-day technology. GPT-3, on top of which chatGPT was built, itself took nearly 2 years to reach this mark of 1 million users. 

“ChatGPT is scary good. We are not far from dangerously strong AI,” these were the words of Elon Musk following the release of chatGPT, who remained one of the co-founders of OpenAI. According to The New York Times, ChatGPT is the best artificial intelligence chatbot ever released to the public. 

It is believed that OpenAI’s chatGPT could be a financial disaster for the world’s most powerful search engine Google, due to its ability to deliver superior answers than Google. Moreover, Google provides links to websites and documents, based on entered queries, and one has to go through these links to get an accurate answer. On the other hand, chatGPT gives an immediate or prompt response in a humanlike conversation, which is highly accurate most of the time. According to an article in The Washington Post, chatGPT is considered a serious threat to Google in Silicon Valley. 

Although there are some drawbacks associated with chatGPT, such as sometimes it gives incorrect information, biased content, etc., which is admitted by its developers, still it’s expected to change the future of Artificial Intelligence in the coming time. Furthermore, chatGPT is developed by the non-profit organization OpenAI, which is continuously working to improve this platform further based on user interactions and public response. Therefore, it is expected that the accuracy and knowledge delivered by chatGPT will increase by manyfold with the continuous efforts of its developers.

Table of Contents

What Is ChatGPT? 

ChatGPT is a language model developed by OpenAI, which utilizes deep learning techniques to generate human-like text. The model is based on the GPT (Generative Pre-training Transformer) architecture, which has achieved state-of-the-art results in numerous natural language processing tasks. 

One of the key features of ChatGPT is its ability to generate highly coherent and fluent text, making it suitable for a wide range of applications such as chatbots, language translation, and text summarization. The model has been trained on a massive amount of text data, which enables it to understand the context and generate appropriate responses. 

In addition to its natural language generation capabilities, ChatGPT also has the ability to perform other language-related tasks such as question answering and text completion. The model can be fine-tuned to specific tasks, such as customer service chatbots, by training it on a smaller dataset related to the specific task. 

One of the advantages of ChatGPT is its ability to generate text that is similar to that of a human. This is because the model has been trained on a diverse range of text data, which includes books, articles, and websites. This allows the model to understand the nuances of human language and generate text that is more natural and coherent.  

How ChatGPT Works? 

The chatGPT model is trained to predict the next word in a sentence based on the previous words, so it is able to generate coherent and grammatically correct answers in response to queries. It uses a technique called transformer architecture which is known for its ability to handle large amounts of data and its ability to model the dependencies between words in a sentence. This allows ChatGPT to generate more accurate and contextually relevant responses. 
The chatGPT model has been trained to act as per the user’s intention. The GPT-3 model, on top of which chatGPT has been developed, uses reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF). This technique utilizes human preferences as a reward signal, that is used to fine-tune the GPT models. For creating a reward model for reinforcement learning, a comparison data is collected. The comparison data comprises two or more model responses ranked by quality. The ranking is done by AI trainers based on the response generated by model-written messages. Based on raking, the reward models are trained to respond to the input queries. The process is shown in figure 1. 
ChatGPT Diagram
Figure 1: Training of GPT model using reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) (source:

Evolution Of ChatGPT 

ChatGPT is the latest version of the GPT (Generative Pre-training Transformer) language model developed by OpenAI. The history of ChatGPT can be traced back to the development of GPT and is briefly discussed below:

  • GPT: The first version of GPT (GPT-1) was released in 2018, and it was trained on a massive dataset of web pages, books, and articles. GPT-1 was able to generate human-like text with high coherence and fluency. 
  • GPT-2: In 2019, OpenAI released GPT-2, which was trained on an even larger dataset and had the ability to perform a wide range of language-related tasks, such as text completion and question answering. GPT-2 generated text that was even more human-like than GPT-1. 
  • GPT-3: and GPT-3 based products: In 2020, OpenAI released GPT-3, which is considered to be the most advanced version of the GPT model. GPT-3 was trained on a massive dataset of text and can perform a wide range of language-related tasks, such as text summarization, translation, and writing. OpenAI also released several GPT-3 based products such as OpenAI’s GPT-3 Playground, GPT-3 in action, and GPT-3 based applications. 
  • ChatGPT: ChatGPT is the latest version of GPT-3 that has been fine-tuned specifically for conversational text generation, and it is designed to generate highly coherent and fluent text. 


evolution of chatgpt
Figure 2: History of chatGPT evolution

The history of ChatGPT is closely tied to the development of GPT and OpenAI. With each iteration, the model has become more advanced and capable. With the release of ChatGPT, it has become an important tool for developers and researchers in natural language processing. 

Patent Applications Filing On Similar Technologies 

Natural language processing with AI 

A survey utilizing XLSCOUT has shown that 55,670 patent applications have been filed on NLU utilizing artificial intelligence (AI). Out of these 55,670 applications, 11805 patents have been granted and 21,810 applications are still in the examination phase. Figure 3 shows patents of different assignees filed in this technology domain in the past 10 years. A significant increase in patent filings by various assignees in this technology domain has been observed in the past couple of years. 

ChatGPT - an-AI-equipped-tool-for-shaping-the-future-of-next-generation-Information-Technology
Figure 3: Patent filing on Natural Language Processing using Artificial Intelligence in the last 10 years by top assignee

Next Word Prediction Using AI 

We have also surveyed to find out patents on next-word prediction using artificial intelligence. It was found that 1,418 patent applications have been filed in this technology domain, as shown in figure 4. Interestingly, out of these 1,418 applications, more than 1300 patent applications have been filed in the last 5 years. Furthermore, Huawei, Amazon, Microsoft, Samsung, Google, Adobe, and Salesforce, have come out to be top assignees in this technology domain. 

Patent filing on Next word predicting using Artificial Intelligence
Figure 4: Patent filing on Next word predicting using Artificial Intelligence

Applications Of ChatGPT 

Following are some of the potential applications of chatGPT, that can change the future of information technology forever 

  • Automatic market search – ChatGPT can assist in the market search. For example, we can get the best brands in specific domains by entering the required information on chatGPT. The results delivered by chatGPT are prompt and save a lot of time in comparison to manual search. 
  • Code writing and debugging – It can help developers write code if stuck somewhere while programming. It has been demonstrated by many developers that complicated codes in various languages can be debugged easily with the help of ChatGPT’s advanced AI technology. In this way, chatGPT is expected to pace up the code-writing process for developers. 
  • Employee support – ChatGPT can answer frequent queries on various platforms and hence frees the HR team from answering the same queries again and again. In this way, chatGPT can help automate the employee support process. 
  • Sale support – It can help customers by providing personalized recommendations based on what the customer wants. Furthermore, based on search history, it can deliver offers and recommendations to customers based on their tastes.   
  • Chatbot – Chatbot is the most explored application of chatGPT. Chatbots & AI tech are put into major software products like Word, Excel, Outlook, and more through Bing.  
  • Natural language processing tool – It is considered a powerful natural language processing tool providing a wide range of applications to its customers. Further, ChatGPT is trained to respond to queries in various languages popular across the globe. 
  • YouTube summary – It can help YouTubers create summaries and text relevant to their videos, by just entering a few words into the chatGPT’s interface. In this way, a lot of time for content creators is saved that would have otherwise been wasted in writing descriptions and summaries.   
  • Automatic handling of Emails/WhatsApp/Twitter – ChatGPT can be programmed to automatically respond to emails, based on user requirements. Similarly, it can be used to add comments in social media applications on behalf of a user. WhatsApp and Twitter replies can also be made automatically by training chatGPT according to a specific user. 

Investments In ChatGPT 

ChatGPT, being a product of OpenAI, a private AI research laboratory, is not a standalone company that investors can invest in directly. However, there are several big companies that have invested in OpenAI and are investing in the development and application of language models like ChatGPT: 

  • Microsoft: Microsoft has announced a multi-year partnership with OpenAI in July 2019, with the goal of infusing AI throughout its products and services, and bringing AI to more people and organizations. As part of the partnership, Microsoft invested in OpenAI and is using GPT-3 and ChatGPT in several of its products, including its Azure cloud platform and its Dynamics 365 CRM software. 

According to recent news, Microsoft is set to invest $10 billion in OpenAI as part of a funding round that would value the company at $29 billion, news site Semafor reported Tuesday. Microsoft will reportedly get a 75% share of OpenAI’s profits until it makes back the money on its investment, after which the company would assume a 49% stake in OpenAI. 

  • Amazon: Amazon announced a collaboration with OpenAI in 2019, with the goal of improving the performance of its natural language processing services. The company is using GPT-3 and ChatGPT in its Alexa voice assistant and its Amazon Web Services (AWS) platform. 
  • Google: Google has announced a partnership with OpenAI in 2020, with the goal of infusing AI throughout its products and services, and bringing AI to more people and organizations. Google is using GPT-3 and ChatGPT in several of its products, including its Google Cloud Platform and its Google Assistant. 
  • Salesforce: Salesforce announced a collaboration with OpenAI in 2020, with the goal of improving the performance of its natural language processing services. Salesforce is using GPT-3 and ChatGPT in its Einstein AI platform to provide more sophisticated natural language processing capabilities to its customers. 
These are just a few examples of big companies that are investing in the development and application of language models like ChatGPT. As the technology continues to evolve, we can expect to see more companies invest in this area, both in terms of financial investment and research and development. 

How Worthy It Is To Invest In ChatGPT And Other Language Models 

ChatGPT, being a product of OpenAI, a private AI research laboratory, does not have any publicly traded stock that can be invested in. However, there are several ways to invest in the development and growth of ChatGPT and other language models: 

Investing in OpenAI: OpenAI is a private company that is backed by a number of high-profile investors, such as Elon Musk, Sam Altman, and Ilya Sutskever. While the company is not publicly traded, it has raised money through venture capital funding rounds. By investing in venture capital funds that have invested in OpenAI, you would be indirectly investing in the company and its products, including ChatGPT. 

Investing in companies that use or develop language models: Many companies, big and small, are using or developing language models like ChatGPT for their products and services. Investing in companies that are at the forefront of this technology can provide exposure to the growth of language models and AI in general. 

Investing in AI-focused venture capital funds: There are several venture capital funds that focus on investing in AI-related startups and companies. By investing in these funds, you would be gaining exposure to a diverse portfolio of companies that are working on cutting-edge AI technologies, including language models like ChatGPT. 

Start-ups Developing Similar Models 

Recently, a few start-ups have emerged in the Artificial Intelligence that are developing or working on similar models for natural language processing. A brief overview of a few of these is given below:

  • Co:here: Founded in 2019, Co:here is a start-up working on natural language processing models powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning. The models developed by co:here can be used by developers for building AI applications for businesses, including tools for chatbots and other features that can understand human speech and text. The co-founder and CEO of cohere is Aidan Gomez, a former doctorate student at the University of Oxford. According to a news, Google is in talks with cohere to invest at least $200 million in this start-up for empowering artificial intelligence-based processing. 
  • AI21 Labs: Founded in 2017, AI21 Labs is an Israel-based company, that is working in natural language processing and working to develop state-of-the-art natural language processing models. The Jurassic-1 auto-regressive language model is the latest language model developed by AI21, which is in line with GPT-3. The company provides its services to develop various applications on top of such models. 
  • Hugging Face: Another start-up working in natural language processing and chatbots is Hugging Face. This company was founded by Clément Delangue, Julien Chaumond, and Thomas Wolf in 2016. Hugging face stores and manages various open-source natural language processing models and enables its customers to fine-tune these artificial intelligence-equipped models as per requirements. 
  • Primer: Founded in 2015, Primer is a Francisco-based start-up that works in natural language processing using artificial intelligence. The company was able to collect millions of dollars in its initial fund-raising round. Primer provides various natural language processing models that can be tuned on domain-specific data. This company mainly provides its services for defence and government. 
  • Xiao-i: Xiao-i is an old player in artificial intelligent technology. Based out of China, this company launched its first chatbot in 2004, and since then it has continuously worked in natural language processing with the aim of enhancing the customer experience. According to Xlscout’s patent portfolio analysis, this company has a total of 83 patents in natural language processing, as shown in figure 9. Out of these patents, 20 patents are active and 43 are in the examination stage. 
Patents by Xiao-i in NLU
Figure 9: Patents by Xiao-i in NLU

In addition to these companies, Deep Discovery, Biologit, Ishield, AI Palette, Narrativa, Articolare, Mendel, Gleematic AI, and so on, are a few of the other start-ups that are working on natural language processing using artificial intelligence and are expected to contribute to this technology domain. 

ChatGPT For IPR – A Case Study  

Since the chatGPT has been trained on a large dataset of text information, therefore it can also be explored in the field of IPR. To find out its applications in IPR, such as in patent technology search, assignee search, patent portfolio analysis, and drafting patent applications, used by attorneys to analyze inventive step assessment (ISA) using the problem-solution approach, etc., we have put a few simple queries in chatGPT interface and have tried to figure out the information provided by chatGPT.  

At first, we searched for the top assignee in 5G technology, the snapshot for information provided by chatGPT is shown in figure 5. Since the chatGPT has been trained with data up to 2021, it has given results up to 2021. According to information provided by chatGPT, Qualcomm, Huawei, Ericsson, Samsung, and so on have filed the maximum number of patents in this technology domain. The information delivered by patsnap competitive landscape analysis for 5G technology is also shown here for comparison (figure 6). It was observed that chatGPT has targeted the right players, however, the patent count and assignee ranking varied in these interfaces. 

Top assignee search for 5G technology in chatGPT
Figure 5: Top assignee search for 5G technology in chatGPT
Top assignee for 5G technology in competitive landscape analysis
Figure 6: Top assignee for 5G technology in competitive landscape analysis

To explore the application further, we tried to search on different domains by narrowing down our query further, i.e., we framed our query to extract patents with maximum citing on quadcopter. In response to this query, the chatGPT responded that it does not have such information. Although, it provided some general information on this technology, as shown snapshot in figure 7. 

Query on Quadcopter in chatGPT
Figure 7: Query on Quadcopter in chatGPT

While exploring chatGPT, we found an interesting thing. We entered a patent number, US 9,509,410 B2 in chatGPT, which is related to optical transceiver. We entered this patent number, just after our previous query on quadcopter. The screenshot illustrated in figure 8 shows the response of chatGPT for the entered patent number. It was observed that chatGPT disclosed that this patent number is associated with quadcopter technology and its assignee is DJI technology, which is incorrect.  

The wrong answer delivered by this application could be attributed to the fact that chatGPT is based on next-word prediction, i.e., it uses history to answer queries and modifies its response according to previous words. Since our previous query was associated with quadcopter, so it has modified its response in accordance with the previous input. However, the information provided by chatGPT regarding the issue date of this patent number was correct. 

response of chatGPT for the entered patent number
Figure 8

Therefore, we find out that chatGPT, at present, is not able to deliver correct and highly accurate information on patents in comparison with other databases. However, if trained properly and in relevance to databases such as USPTO, WIPO, ESPACE, and so on; it can prove to be effective. Because the information provided by this technology at present is in the infant stage, therefore, only time will tell how this technology or similar other technologies progress in the IPR domain. 


ChatGPT has revolutionized the way we communicate with chatbots, making them more human-like and able to understand and respond to user input in a more sophisticated way. The advanced natural language processing capabilities of GPT allow for more natural and engaging conversations with chatbots. Its availability as an API also makes it easy to integrate into various applications, opening up new possibilities for developers. 

However, it’s also important to consider the ethical and privacy implications of GPT in chatbot technology, as they have the potential to perpetuate biases and raise concerns about the handling of user data. Overall, ChatGPT is a powerful technology that has the potential to greatly enhance our communication with machines and reshape the way we interact with technology. As the technology continues to advance, we can expect to see even more innovative uses of ChatGPT in the future. 

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